Curriculum Vitae


James Albus's Curriculum Vitae Download

Date and place of birth: May 4, 1935, Louisville, KY, USA

Date and place of death: April 17, 2011, Kensington, MD, USA

Citizenship: United States of America (U.S.A).

Education:

B.S. Physics (with honors), 1957, Wheaton College, Illinois

M.S. Electrical Engineering, 1958, Ohio State University

Ph.D. Electrical Engineering, 1972, University of Maryland

Work Experience:

June 2008 to April 2011: Senior Fellow, Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Provide technical leadership for programs that advance understanding of the computational and representational mechanisms of the human brain.

December 1998 to May 2008: Senior NIST Fellow, National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST) Provided technical leadership to the Intelligent Systems Division and served as Principal Investigator for the implementation of intelligent ground vehicle projects funded by the Army and DARPA.

June 1995 to December 1998: Chief, Intelligent Systems Division, NIST. Managed a Division of 35 professional scientists and engineers with an $8+ million per year budget. Developed the 4D/RCS architecture for the Army Research Lab (ARL) Demo III Experimental Unmanned Vehicle program.

Feburary 1981 to March 1996: Chief, Robot Systems Division, NIST. Founded the Robot Systems Division, hired staff, acquired funding, developed the RoboCrane, and many applications of the RCS architecture for DARPA, NASA, ARL, U.S. Bureau of Mines, Ford, and General Motors.

June 1980 to January 1981: Leader, Programmable Automation Group, National Bureau of Standards (NBS.) Developed the RCS reference model architecture for the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility.

March 1973 to June 1980: Project Manager, Sensors and Computer Control Technology, NBS. Developed the Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) neural net model.

1969 to March 1973: Head, Cybernetics and Subsystems Development Section, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Developed a theory of cerebellar function that is still widely cited by researchers in cerebellar neurophysiology. Designed, built, and analyzed data from solar aspect sensors for more than 15 Earth satellites and a moon probe.

1963 to 1969: Acting Head, Video Techniques Section, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Received a NASA work-study fellowship and began studying neurophysiology, brain modeling, and artificial intelligence. Developed digital image compression hardware.

1958 to 1969: Physicist-Engineer, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Developed sensors for measuring the spin vector of a satellite relative to the sun. Invented a digital solar aspect sensor, received a NASA invention award, and a National Space Club Fellowship.

1957 to 1958: Physicist-Engineer, Project Vanguard, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. Designed antennas and antenna feed system for the Vanguard I Earth satellite. This satellite is still in orbit. A duplicate hung in the National Air and Space museum for 20 years.

Specific outstanding technical and professional accomplishments:

Dr. Albus is an internationally known leader in the theory and design of intelligent systems and their application to robotics and automation system. His contributions to both theory and application are numerous and substantial. Dr. Albus has produced significant technical results in seven important areas:

  1. Brain theory: In 1971, he published a new theory of cerebellar function that modified and extended a previous theory published by David Marr in 1969.
  2. Impact: What is now known as the Marr-Albus theory of the cerebellum is regularly cited in the neuroscience literature. It continues to inspire experimental activity by leading cerebellar neurophysiologists throughout the world. The Albus portion of the Marr-Albus theory has also proven an invaluable inspiration to the fields of neural nets, robotics, and intelligent machine systems.

  3. Neural nets: Based on his cerebellar model, Albus invented a new type of neural net computer, the Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC.)
  4. Impact: CMAC was awarded an IR-100 award from Industrial Research Magazine as one of the 100 most important industrial innovations of the year 1976. Today, CMAC (a.k.a. Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer) continues to inspire research in neural networks. It has several significant advantages over more traditional neural net learning algorithms. It is orders of magnitude faster in learning non-linear functions than back-propagation, and is much faster in execution. This makes it particularly useful for applications related to real-time adaptive control. CMAC is the subject of many recent publications in the robotics and neural net literature.

  5. RoboCrane: Dr. Albus invented and developed a new generation of robot cranes based on six cables and six winches configured as a Stewart platform.
  6. Impact: The NIST RoboCraneTM has the capacity to lift and precisely manipulate heavy loads over large volumes with fine control in all six degrees of freedom. Laboratory RoboCranes have demonstrated the ability to manipulate tools such as saws, grinders, and welding torches, and to lift and precisely position heavy objects such as steel beams and cast iron pipe. In 1992, the RoboCrane was selected by Construction Equipment magazine as one of the 100 most significant new products of the year for construction and related industries. It was also selected by Popular Science magazine for the "Best of What’s New" award as one of the 100 top products, technologies, and scientific achievements of 1992.

    A version of the RoboCrane has been commercially developed for the Air Force to enable rapid paint stripping, inspection, and repainting of very large military aircraft such as the C-5 Galaxy. RoboCrane is expected to save the Air Force $8 million annually at each of its maintenance facilities. This project was recognized in 2008 by a National Laboratories Award for technology transfer.

    Potential future applications of the RoboCrane include ship building, construction of high rise buildings, highways, bridges, tunnels, and port facilities; cargo handling, ship-to-ship cargo transfer on the high seas, radioactive and toxic waste clean-up; and underwater applications such as salvage, drilling, cable maintenance, and undersea waste site management.

  7. Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Systems: Dr. Albus co-developed with Dr. Anthony Barbera a reference model architecture for intelligent systems that integrates concepts from artificial intelligence, machine vision, expert systems, modern control theory, operations research, differential games, and utility theory. It bridges the gap between symbolic and numeric computation, and integrates deliberative with reactive controllers. It facilitates software and hardware system design, development, and test, and makes possible the integration of software from a wide variety of sources. It provides a solid theoretical basis for open architecture standards and performance measures for intelligent systems software.
  8. Impact: During the 1980’s, the Albus-Barbera reference model architecture (a.k.a. RCS – for Real-time Control System) provided the fundamental integrating principle of the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF.) This was an $80 million experimental automated factory-of-the-future. It was co-funded by the U.S. Navy Manufacturing Technology Program and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The success of the AMRF was largely responsible for the Congressional Legislation that transformed NBS into NIST.

    Over the past two decades, scientists and engineers at NIST, in other government agencies, in industry, and academia have applied the RCS reference model architecture to a wide variety of practical problems in manufacturing, construction, space telerobotics, unmanned undersea vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, automated underground coal mining systems, control of nuclear submarines, postal service automation, and strategic missile defense. It has been used by engineers in a number of companies such as General Electric, Martin Marietta, Boeing, Hughes, General Motors, Lockheed, and many others for implementation of advanced control systems for robots, machine tools, and factory automation systems.

    An RCS controller for an automated deburring and chamfering robotic system was developed in coordination with United Technologies and Pratt & Whitney for jet engine turbine blade manufacturing. The RCS reference model architecture was adopted by NASA as the NBS/NASA Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM). NASREM was used by NASA and its prime contractor Martin Marietta for the space station flight telerobotic servicer. It was adopted by the European Space Agency for telerobotic control. A submarine operational automation system based on the RCS reference architecture was developed by General Dynamics Electric Boat Division for the Navy’s next generation of nuclear submarines. The NIST-RCS architecture has been adopted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines for its coal mine automation program. The U.S. Postal Service has used RCS for automating a next generation general mail facility and an automated stamp distribution facility.

    During the 1990’s, Dr. Albus led a team of researchers in developing an open architecture Enhanced Machine Controller (EMC) for intelligent machine tools and next generation inspection systems based on the RCS principles. The EMC was successfully tested and evaluated by shop personnel in a production prototype shop at General Motors Powertrain plant in Flint Michigan. Commercial controllers based on this version of the EMC have been developed and used by industry for water-jet cutters and machining cell controllers. Application Program Interface (API) specifications for open architecture controller standards have been developed in collaboration with an industry consortium consisting of developers, vendors, and users including General Motors, Ford, Chrysler, Boeing, DOE, NIST, and a number of small companies. EMC software and documentation has also been made available to universities and is currently being incorporated into curriculum for university courses in advanced control systems.

    The most recent version of the RCS reference model (4D/RCS) was developed for the highly successful Demo III Experimental Unmanned Vehicle program sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory (ARL). This program demonstrated that autonomous navigation of military ground vehicles under battlefield conditions is technically feasible. 4D/RCS has since been adopted by the Army for four major programs: 1) the Army Tank and Automotive Command (TACOM) Vetronics Technology Integration program, 2) the TACOM Road Follower program, ), 3) the ARL Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance program, and 4) the Army Future Combat System Autonomous Navigation System (ANS.) The ANS is being manufactured by General Dynamics Robotic Systems. It is to be installed on all combat ground vehicles in the Army Future Combat System. 4D/RCS has also been applied to autonomous driving research programs funded by DARPA and the Federal Highway Administration.

  9. Computational Theory of Mind: Dr. Albus has extended the 4D/RCS reference model to a Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Multi-Agent Systems. This extended architecture is designed to enable any level of intelligent behavior, up to and including human levels of performance in driving vehicles and coordinating tactical behaviors between autonomous air, ground, and amphibious vehicle systems. It addresses the fundamental theoretical questions regarding whether computational processes are capable of emulating the functional processes in the brain, and provides a theoretical basis for understanding how the machinery of the brain generates the processes of the mind. Dr. Albus’ recent work has led to a biologically plausible model of representation and computation in the human cortex.
  10. Impact: The fundamental theoretical background was published in a book entitled Engineering of Mind, published by Wiley Science Series in 2001. The most significant results are very new. "A Computational Model of the Human Visual Cortex"was published this spring in Proceedings SPIE 08, Orlando, Fla. 2008. This is a biologically plausible model of how the brain solves the symbol-grounding problem. "Reverse Engineering the Human Brain"has been peer reviewed and accepted for publication in the AAAI 2008 Fall Symposium. This paper proposes a massively parallel computational architecture based on Cortical Computational Units (CCUs) that may enable us to finally build computers with capabilities for perception, cognition, and behavior that are comparable to those of the biological brain.

  11. Peoples’ Capitalism: Dr. Albus has been concerned for many years about the potential social impact of advanced intelligent systems. He is optimistic about the wealth producing capabilities of intelligent machines, but concerned about the elimination of jobs and the downward pressures advanced automation has on human wages and salaries. In 1976, he published a book entitled Peoples’ Capitalism: The Economics of the Robot Revolution. In that book he lays out a plan to broaden capital ownership to the point where every citizen becomes a capitalist with a substantial income from personal ownership of capital assets. He maintains a web site http://www.PeoplesCapitalism.org where he outlines a practical plan to achieve a future economic system where income from ownership of capital assets supplements, and eventually supplants, wages and salaries as the primary source of income for the average citizen.
  12. Impact: Actual impact has been slight. The economics establishment does not readily accept big ideas from outside the profession. However, the potential impact is huge. Economic models suggest that giving every citizen access to credit for investing in capital assets could eliminate poverty in a single generation. Providing every citizen an ownership share in the means of production would eventually usher in a golden age of prosperity and economic justice based on goods and services produced by intelligent machines and systems.

  13. Decade of the Mind: Dr. Albus conceived of and promoted the idea of a $4 billion 10-year national program to understand the mechanisms of mind. This concept dubbed Decade of the Mind is modeled after the Human Genome project in structure and size.
  14. Impact: Decade of the Mind has been formally adopted as a major thrust area by the Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies at the George Mason University. Three Decade of the Mind workshops have been held and a fourth is scheduled at Sandia National Labs. The director of the Krasnow Institute has made many contacts on Capitol Hill, and prospects seem good that Decade of the Mind may become a funded program during the next administration.

Principal Technical Society Memberships, Activities, and other Noteworthy Accomplishments

  1. Editorial board member for:
  2. Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems – John Wiley & Sons

    Journal of Autonomous Robots – Kluwer Academic Publishers

    Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems – Elsevier

    Journal of Robotic Systems – Wiley and Wiley InterScience

    International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems – World Scientific Publishing

    Journal of Information Sciences – Elsevier, North-Holland

    Journal of Intelligent Automation and Soft Computing – AutoSoft Press

  3. IEEE Ad hoc committee on Intelligent Control
  4. NASA Study Group on Machine Intelligence and Robotics.
  5. NASA Advisory Subcommittee for Research & Technology
  6. Office of Technology Assessment Ad Hoc Committee on study social implications of robotics and automated manufacturing.
  7. Past member, Board of Directors, Robotics International of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Professional Recognition:

  1. Federal Laboratories Tech Transfer for RoboCrane to Air Force maintenance operations, 2008
  2. NIST Applied Research Award for RoboCrane research and applications, 2006
  3. Information Science Award for theory and applications of intelligent systems, 2005
  4. NIST Applied Research Award for advances in autonomous driving technology, 2002
  5. Fortune Magazine "Hero of U.S. Manufacturing," 1997
  6. Construction Equipment magazine 100 most significant new products for RoboCrane, 1992
  7. Presidential Rank of Meritorious Executive award, October, 1990
  8. Japanese Industrial Robot Association Research and Development award, September, 1990
  9. NIST Applied Research award for a theory of intelligence and its application to robotics, 1989
  10. Department of Commerce Gold Medal Award for Distinguished Achievement in Federal Service, 1986
  11. Senior Executive Service Award for contributions to Automated Manufacturing Research, 1985
  12. Engelberger Award for technology development of industrial robots (by King of Sweden), 1984
  13. Department of Commerce selection for Senior Executive Service 1983
  14. Industrial Research IR-100 Award for CMAC, 1976
  15. Department of Commerce Silver Medal for CMAC, 1975
  16. Washington Academy of Sciences Fellow, 1973
  17. Goddard Space Flight Center Superior Achievement Award, 1970
  18. National Space Club Hugh L. Dryden Memorial Fellowship, 1967
  19. NASA Outstanding Invention Award, 1963

Publications

Summary:

  • Refereed journal articles = 21
  • Patents = 7
  • Books authored, co-authored, or edited = 6
  • Book chapters and encyclopedia entries = 9
  • Conference proceedings = 145
  • Distinguished lectures, keynote, and plenary speeches = 16
  • Other significant presentations = 98

Seven publications of most significant impact:

  1. Albus, J.S. "A Model of Computation and Representation in the Brain,"Information Sciences, 180 (2010) 1519–1554 http://www.james-albus.org/docs/ModelofComputation.pdf
  2. Albus, J.S., and Meystel, A. M. Engineering of Mind: An Introduction to the Science of Intelligent Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems, New York, 2001
  3. Albus, J.S., "Outline for a Theory of Intelligence,"IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 21, No. 3, May/June 1991.
  4. Albus, J.S., Brains, Behavior and Robotics, BYTE/McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981
  5. Albus, J.S., "A New Approach to Manipulator Control: The Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC)," Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, American Soc. of Mechanical Engineers, Sept., 1975
  6. Albus, J.S., "A Theory of Cerebellar Function," Mathematical Biosciences, l0:25-6l, 1971
  7. Albus, J.S., et.al "4D/RCS Version 2.0: A Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Vehicle Systems," NISTIR 6910, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, . 2002 http://www.james-albus.org/docs/4DRCS_ver2.pdf

Books:

Madhaven, R., Messina, E., and Albus, J. (Eds.) Intelligent Vehicle Systems: A 4D/RCS Approach, NOVA Publishers, New York, 2007

Albus, J. S., and Meystel, A. M. Engineering of Mind: An Introduction to the Science of Intelligent Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems, New York, 2001

Meystel, A. M., and Albus, J. S. Intelligent Systems: Architecture, Design, and Control, John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems, New York, 2002

Albus, J. S., Brains, Behavior and Robotics, BYTE Books, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981 Albus, J. S., Peoples' Capitalism: The Economics of the Robot Revolution, New World Books, Kensington, MD, 1976.

Gazi, V., Moore, M. L., Passino, K. M., Shackleford, W. P., Proctor, F. M., and Albus, J. S., The RCS Handbook: Tools for Real-Time Control Systems Software Development, John Wiley & Sons, Wiley Series on Intelligent Systems, New York, 2001

Refered Journal Articles:

Albus, J.S., Barbera, A. J., "RCS: A cognitive architecture for intelligent multi-agent systems," Annual Reviews in Control, Vol. 29, Issue 1 (2005) 87-99 http://www.james-albus.org/docs/IFAC RCS Cog Architecture.pdf

Albus, J.S. "A Model of Computation and Representation in the Brain,"Information Sciences, 180 (2010) 1519–1554 http://james-albus.org/docs/ModelofComputationandRepresentationfinalplusforweb.pdf

Albus, J.S. "Toward a Computational Theory of Mind,"Journal of Mind Theory, Vol. 0, No.1, (2008) 1-38

Albus, J.S. "Peoples’ Capitalism: A Plan for Prosperity and Economic Justice,"Global Business and Economics Anthology, Vol. I, Dec 2007 http://www.peoplescapitalism.org/presentations/PeoplesCapitalismpaper3.pdf

Albus, J. S., Barbera, A. J., "RCS: A cognitive architecture for intelligent multi-agent systems,"Annual Reviews in Control, Vol. 29, Issue 1 (2005) 87-99

Albus, J.S. "The Engineering of Mind,"Information Sciences, Vol. 117, No. 1-2, (1999)

Albus, J.S., Meystel, A.M. "A Reference Model Architecture for Design and Implementation of Intelligent Control in Large and Complex Systems,"International Journal of Intelligent Control and Systems, Vol. 1, No. 1, pgs. 15-30, March (1996)

Albus, J.S., "The NIST Real-time Control System (RCS): An Approach to Intelligent Systems Research", Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, Special Issue, 9 (1997), 157-174

Albus, J.S., Lumia, R., "The Enhanced Machine Controller (EMC): An Open Architecture Controller for Machine Tools,"Journal of Manufacturing Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 278-280, September 1994.

Albus, J.S., Bostelman, R.V., Dagalakis, N., "The NIST ROBOCRANE,"Journal of Robotic Systems, Vol. 10, No. 5, pgs 709-724, September 1992.

Albus, J.S., "RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Control,"IEEE Journal on Computer Architectures for Intelligent Machines, May 1992.

Raviv, D., Albus, J.S., "A Closed-Form Massively-Parallel Range-From-Image-Flow Algorithm,"IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 22, No. 2, March/April 1992.

Albus, J.S., "Outline for a Theory of Intelligence,"IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 21, No. 3, May/June 1991.

Albus, J.S., "Robotics: Where Has It Been? Where Is It Going?" International Journal of Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 199-219, July 1990.

Lumia, R., Albus, J.S., "Teleoperation and Autonomy for Space Robotics,"Robotics, Vol. 4, No. 1, pgs 27- 33, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (North-Holland), March 1988.

Kent, Ernest W., Albus, James S., "Servoed World Models As Interfaces Between Robot Control Systems And Sensory Data." ROBOTICA (2), pp l7-25, l984.

Haynes, L.S., Barbera, A.J., Albus, J.S., Fitzgerald, M.L., McCain, H.G., "Application Example of the NBS Robot Control System,"Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 1, pgs 81-95, 1984.

Simpson, John, Robert Hocken, and James Albus, "The Automated Manufacturing Research Facility of the National Bureau of Standards."J. of Manufacturing Systems, May l982.

Albus, J.S., "Mechanisms of Planning and Problem Solving in the Brain", Mathematical Biosciences 45:247-293, January 31, 1979.

Albus, J.S., "A New Approach to Manipulator Control: The Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC)," Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, American Soc. of Mechanical Engineers, Sept., 1975.

Albus, J.S., "Data Storage in the Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC)" Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, American Soc. of Mechanical Engineers, Sept., 1975.

Albus, J.S., "A Theory of Cerebellar Function," Mathematical Biosciences, l0:25-6l, 197l.

Albus, J.S., "A Model for Memory in the Brain." Cybernetica, l3:(3)l60-l79, l970

Distinguished Lectures:

"Toward a Computational Theory of Mind", University of Texas, Austin, 2007

"A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Systems", Krasnow Institute for Advanced Studies, 2006

"The Engineering of Mind", Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, March, 1997

"Mechanisms of Mind and the Meaning for Mankind", Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, July, 1995.

Keynote and Plenary Speeches:

A Computational Model of the Human Visual Cortex, SPIE 08, Orlando, Fla. 2008 Cognitive Models and Architectures, International Conference on Smart Machining Systems, Gaithersburg, MD, 2007

Knowledge, Understanding, and Behavior, IEEE International Conference on Knowledge Intensive Multi- Agent Systems, Waltham, Mass. 2005

Building Brains for Thinking Machines, NIST workshop in Performance Measures for Intelligent Machines, Gaithersburg, MD, 2005

Intelligent Control for Unmanned Ground Vehicles: Progress and Prospects 6th Joint Conference on Information Sciences (JCIS), Durham, North Carolina, March 8-14, 2002

"Why Now Semiotics? From Real-time Control to Signs and Symbols", International Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Semiotics, NIST, September, 1997

"Engineering Intelligent Systems", International Conference on Computational Intelligence in Robotics and Automation, Montery, CA, July, 1997

"A Roadmap to the Future for Intelligent Systems", International Joint Conference on Information Sciences, Duke University, March, 1997

"Engineering of Mind,"Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4, Cape Code, MA, September 8-11, 1996.

"Intelligent Control: From Theory to Practice,"9th IEEE Symposium on Intelligent Control, Columbus, OH, August 1994.

"From Black Art to Sound Theory,"2nd IEEE Mediterranean Symposium on New Directions in Control and Automation, Chania, Crete, Greece, June, 1994.

"A Theory of Intelligent Machine Systems,"IEEE Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS91 -- Intelligence for Mechanical Systems, Osaka, Japan, November 1991.

General Publications

Albus, J.S. "Reverse Engineering the Brain,"Proceedings of the AAAI Fall Symposium, Washington, D.C., 2008

Albus, J.S., "A Computational Model of the Human Visual Cortex", Proceedings SPIE 08, Orlando, Fla. 2008

Albus, J.S., "Segmentation and Classification of Human Forms using LADAR", IEEE Applied Image Pattern Recognition workshop, Washington, DC. 2007

Albus, J. and Barbera, A. " Intelligent Control and Tactical Behavior Development: A long term NIST Partnership with the Army", American Nuclear Society Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2006

Albus, J.S., and Barbera, A. J. "RCS: A Cognitive Architecture for Intelligent Multi-Agent Systems,"Proceedings of the 5th IFAC/EURON Symposium on Intelligent Autonomous Vehicles, IAV 2004, Lisbon, Portugal, July 5-7, 2004

Albus, J.S., "4D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Unmanned Ground Vehicles", Proceedings of SPIE AeroSense Conference 4715 on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology IV, Orlando, FA, April 2-3, 2002

Albus, J.S., et.al "4D/RCS Version 2.0: A Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Vehicle Systems,"NISTIR 6910, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, . 2002

Albus, J.S., Scott, H.A., Messina, E., Huang, H.M., Horst, A.J., Michaloski, J.l., Kramer, T.R., Proctor, F.M., Meystel, A.M., Barkmeyer, E.J., Senehi, M.K., "An Intelligent Systems Architecture for Manufacturing (ISAM),"NISTIR 6771, National Institute of Standards and Technology, February, 2002

Albus, J.S., "4-D/RCS Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Ground Vehicles,"Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA, April 24-28, 2000

Albus, J.S., "4-D/RCS Reference Model Architecture for Unmanned Ground Vehicles,"Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 3693 Aerospace Session on Unmanned Ground Vehicle Technology, Orlando, FL, April 7-8, 1999

Albus, J. S., "4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III", Proceedings of the ISIC/CIRA/ISAS ’98 conference, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 14-17

Albus, J.S., Meystel, A., "Behavior Generation in Intelligent Systems,"NISTIR 6083, National Institute of Standards and Technology Internal Report, Gaithersburg, MD, October 1997.

Albus, J.S., "Technology Requirement to Implement Improved Situation Awareness: Machine Perception,"Proceedings of the AGARD Conference on Future Aerospace Technology in the Service of the Alliance, Palaiseau, France, April 14 - 16, 1997.

Albus, J.S., "4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III,"NISTIR 5994, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, March 1997.

Bostelman, R.V., Albus, J.S., Graham, R.E., "RoboCrane and EMMA Applied to Waste Storage Tank Remediation,"Proceedings of the American Nucelar Society Seventh Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems, Augusta, GA, April 27 - May 1, 1997.

Albus, J.S., "RCS (Real-time Control System): An Engineering Architecture for Intelligent Systems", Proceedings for AAAI Fall Symposium Series, Cambridge, MA, November 9-11, 1996.

Albus, J.S., "An Intelligent Systems Architecture for Manufacturing,"Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems: A Semiotic Perspective, Gaithersburg, MD, October 20-23, 1996.

Albus, J.S., Lacaze, A., Meystel, A., "Planning in the Hierarchy of NIST-RCS for Manufacturing,"Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Systems: A Semiotic Perspective, Gaithersburg, MD, October 20-23, 1996.

Albus, J.S., "A Roadmap to the Future for Intelligent Systems and Semiotics", Proceedings of the International Multidisciplinary Conference "Intelligent Systems: A Semiotic Perspective, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD, October 21-23, 1996.

Stouffer, K., Proctor, F., Messina, E., Albus, J.S., "An Advanced Deburring and Chamfering System (ADACS) Based on the Enhanced Machine Controller (EMC),"Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Milan, Italy, October 6-8, 1996.

Albus, J.S., "Architectures & Mathematics in the Design of Intelligent Systems", Architectures & Mathematics: What Determines the Design of Intelligent Systems Workshop, IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control (ISIC), Detroit, MI, September 19, 1996.

Albus, J.S., "Engineering of Mind,"Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior: From Animals to Animats 4, Cape Code, MA, September 8-11, 1996.

Albus, J.S., "Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Hybrid Control,"Proceedings of the 1996 Triennial World Congress, International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), San Francisco, CA, June 30-July 7, 1996.

Albus, J.S.; Meystel, A., "Intelligent Systems: Beyond Neural Networks and Fuzzy Control,"1996 Triennial World Congress, International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), San Francisco, CA, June 30-July 7, 1996.

Albus, J.S., Lacaze, A., Meystel, A. "Algorithm of Nested Clustering for Unsupervised Learning,"Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Intelligent Control, Monterey, Ca., August 1995.

Albus, J.S., Lacaze, A., Meystel, A. "Multiresolutional Intelligent Controller for Baby Robot,"Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Intelligent Control, Monterey, Ca., August 1995.

Albus, J.S., "The NIST Real-time Control System (RCS) An Applications Survey,"Proceedings of the AAAI 1995 Spring Symposium Series, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA, March 27-29, 1995.

Albus, J.S., "A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Systems Design,"Chapter in a book entitled Introduction to Intelligent and Autonomous Control, edited by P.J. Antsaklis and K.M. Passino, 1993. Also published as NISTIR 5502, National Institute for Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., September 1994

Bostelman, R., Albus, J., Dagalakis, N., Jacoff, A., Gross, J., "Applications of the NIST RoboCrane,"Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing, Maui, HI, August 14-18, 1994.

Albus, J.S., Quintero, R., Lumia, R., "An Overview of NASREM: The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture,"NISTIR 5412, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., April 1994.

Bostelman, R., Albus, J., Murphy, K., Tsai, T., Amatucci, E., "A Stewart Platform Lunar Rover,"Proceedings of the Space '94 Conference, Albuquerque, NM, February 28 - March 3, 1994.

Albus, J., Meystel, A., Uzzaman, S.,"Nested Motion Planning for an Autonomous Robot,"Proceedings of the IEEE Regional Conference on Aerospace Control Systems, Westlake Village, CA, May 25-27, 1993.

Albus, J.S., "From Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller to a Reference Model for Intelligent Control,"15th Annual International Conference IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society, San Diego, Ca., October 1993.

Bostelman, R.V., Albus, J.S., "Stability of an Underwater Work Platform Suspended from an Unstable Reference,"Proceedings of the Oceans '93 Conference, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, October 20, 1993.

Albus, J.S., "Task Decomposition,"Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, Chicago, IL, August 1993.

Albus, J.S., "A Reference Model Architecture for Integrated Control,"Proceedings of the US/ROC Joint Workshop on Automation and Productivity for Small to Medium Scale Manufacturing, Taipei, Taiwan, July 1993.

Albus, J.S., Lacaze, A., Meystel, A. "Nested Motion Planning for an Autonomous Robot,"Proceedings of the IEEE Regional Conference on Aerospace Control Systems, Westlake Village, Ca., May 1993.

Schneiderman, H. , Albus, J.S., "Progress and Prospects for Vision-Based Automatic Driving,"Proceedings of the IVHS America '93 Conference, Washington, DC, April 14-17, 1993.

Dagalakis, N.G., Albus, J.S., Bostelman, R.V., Fiala, J., "Development of the NIST Robot Crane Teleoperation Controller,"Proceedings of the 5th Topical Meeting on Robotics and Remote Systems, Knoxville, TN, April 25-30, 1993.

Albus, J.S., "RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Machine Systems,"Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Autonomous Control Systems, Tel Aviv, Israel, November 1992.

Bostelman, R.V., Dagalakis, N., Albus, J.S., "A Robotic Crane System Utilizing the Stewart Platform Configuration,"Proceedings of the ISRAM '92 Conference, Santa Fe, NM, November 10-12, 1992.

Albus J.S., Quintero, R., Proctor, F., Michaloski, J., Dagalakis, N., Tarnoff, N., "NIST Support to the Next Generation Controller Program: 1991 Final Technology Report,"NISTIR 4888, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Md., August 1992.

Albus, J.S., "RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Vehicle and Highway Systems,"Proceedings of the 25th Silver Jubilee International Symposium on Automotive Technology and Automation, Florence, Italy, June 1992.

Albus, J.S., "RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Intelligent Control,"Published in a special issue of Computer titled Computer Architectures for Intelligent Machines, May 1992.

Raviv, D., Orser, D., Albus, J.S., "On Logarithmic Retina,"NISTIR 4807, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, April 1992.

Albus, J.S., "A Canonical Architecture for Intelligent Machine Systems,"Proceedings of Manufacturing International ‘92 Conference, Dallas, Texas, March/April 1992.

Raviv, D., Albus, J.S., "Representations in Visual Motion,"NISTIR 4747, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, January 1992.

Albus, J.S., Quintero, R., Lumia, R., Herman, M., Kilmer, R., Goodwin, K. "A Reference Model Architecture for ARTICS", ASME Manufacturing Review, Vol. 4, No. 3, September 1991.

Albus, J.S.; Quintero, R.; Lumia, R.; Herman, M.; Kilmer, R.; Goodwin, K.; "It is Time to Adopt a Reference Model Architecture for Real-Time Intelligent Control Systems (ARTICS), ASME Manufacturing Review, September 1991.

Raviv, D., Albus, J.S., "Image-Flow Based Reconstruction Algorithm (Extracted from "Closed-Form Massively Parallel Range from Image Flow Algorithm"),"Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics, Florida High-Technology and Industrial Council, Boca Raton, FL, May 16-17, 1991.

Albus, J.S., "A Theory of Intelligent Systems,"Chapter in Academic Press Book in Series, Control and Dynamic Systems: Advances in Theory and Application, Vol. 45, Part 1, pgs. 197-248, edited by C.T. Leondes, 1991.

Huang, H., Quintero, R., Albus, S., "A Reference Model, Design Approach, and Development Illustration toward Hierarchical Real-Time System Control for Coal Mining Operations,"Chapter in Academic Press Book in Series, Control and Dynamic Systems: Advances in Theory and Applications, Vol. 46, "Manufacturing and Automation Systems: Techniques and Technologies,"pgs. 173-254, edited by C.T. Leondes, 1991.

Herman, M., Albus, J.S., Hong, T.H., "Real-Time Vision for Autonomous and Teleoperated Control of Unmanned Vehicles,"In Active Perception and Robot Vision, Sood, A., ed., Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, 1991.

Albus, J.S., Barkmeyer, E., Jones, A., "Approach to a System Architecture for Post Office Automation, USPS 4th Advanced Technology Conference, Automation Technology Workshop, Washington, DC, November 5-7, 1990.

Herman, M., Albus, J.S., Hong, T.H., "Intelligent Control for Multiple Autonomous Undersea Vehicles,"Neural Networks for Control, Miller, W.T. and Sutton, R., Eds., MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, Fall 1990.

Raviv, D., Albus, J.S., "Closed-form Massively-Parallel Range-from-Image Flow Algorithm,"NISTIR 4450, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, October 1990.

Albus, J.S., "Hierarchical Interaction between Sensory Processing and World Modeling in Intelligent Systems,"Fifth IEEE Symposium on Intelligent Control, Philadelphia, PA, September 5-7, 1990.

Albus, J.S., "Role of World Modeling and Value Judgement in Perception,"Fifth IEEE Symposium on Intelligent Control, Philadelphia, PA, September 5-7, 1990.

Albus, J.S., "Theory of Intelligent Systems,"Fifth IEEE Symposium on Intelligent Control, Philadelphia, PA, September 5-7, 1990.

Herman, M., Albus, J., Hong, T., "Real-Time Vision for Unmanned Vehicles,"Proceedings of the Sensors Exposition, pgs 206c-1 to 206c-12, Chicago, IL, September 1990.

Albus, J.S., Quintero, R., "Towards a Reference Model Architecture for Real-Time Intelligent Control Systems (ARTICS), Proceedings of the IEEE Third International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing, Burnaby, Canada, July, 1990.

Albus, J.S.; Hong, T.H.; "Motion, Depth, and Image Flow," Proceedings of 1990 Int'l Conference on Robotic and Automation, IEEE, May, 1990.

Albus, J.S.; Quintero, R.; Lumia, R.; Herman, M.; Kilmer, R.; Goodwin, K.; "Concept for a Reference Model Architecture for Real-Time Intelligent Control Systems (ARTICS)," Technical Note 1277, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

Albus, J.S.; Quintero, R.; Huang, H.; "Mining Automation Real-Time Control System Architecture Standard Reference Model (MASREM)," Technical Note 1261, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

Dagalakis, N.G., Albus, J.S., Goodwin, K.R., Lee, J.D. Tsai, T.M., et. al., "Robot Crane Technology (Final Report),"NISTTN 1267, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, July 1989.

Albus, J.S., "A Control Architecture for Cooperative Intelligent Robots," Proceedings of the Robots & Biological Systems Session, NATO Advanced Workshop, Il Ciocco, Tuscany, Italy, June 1989.

Albus, J.S.; Lumia, R.; Fiala, J.; Wavering, Al; "NASREM: The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture," Proceedings of 20th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Tokyo, Japan, October 1989.

Albus, J.S., "Marr and Albus Theories of the Cerebellum Two Early Models of Associative Memory,"Proceedings of IEEE CompCon, May 1989.

Lumia, R., Albus, J.S., "Space Robotics: Evolution and Applications,"Paper Number 88-1640, Proceedings of the Instrument Society of America 88 International Conference, Houston, TX, October 16- 21, 1988.

Lee, J.D., Albus, J.S., Dagalakis, N.G., Tsai, T.M., "Computer Simulation of a Parallel Link Manipulator,"Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, August 1988.

Lee, J.D., Albus, J.S., Dagalakis, N.G., Tsai, T.M., "Performance Measures of a Robotic Micropositioner,"2nd International Symposium on Robotics and Manufacturing, ASME, pgs 1047-1056, 1988.

Albus, J.S.; McCain, H.G.; Lumia R., NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM), NIST TN 1235, 1989 Ed., National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, April 1989 (Supersedes NBS Technical Note 1235, July 1987).

Albus, J., Kenerva, P., Loebner, E., "Cerebellar Models of Associative Memory," Three papers from IEEE COMPCON, Spring, 1989, IEEE Technical Report #8911, March 1989.

Albus, J.S., "System Description and Design Architecture for Multiple Autonomous Undersea Vehicles," NISTTN 1251, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. 1988

Albus, J.S., "The Central Nervous System as a Low and High Level Control System,"NATO ASI Series, Vol. F43, 1988.

Albus, J.S., "The Golden Age That Could Be," Proceedings of International Symposium and Exposition on Robots, Sydney, Australia, November 6-10, 1988.

Albus, J., "System Description and Design Architecture for Multiple Autonomous Undersea Vehicles (MAUV)," NIST Technical Note 1251, September 1988.

Herman, M., Albus, J.S., "Overview of the Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (MAUV) Project,"1988 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Philadelphia, PA, April 1988.

Albus, J.S.; Dagalakis, N.G.; Wang, B.L.; Unger, J.; Lee, J.D.; Yancy, C.W. Available Robotics Technology for Applications in Heavy Industry, 1987 Iron and Steel Exposition and Annual Convention, Houston, TX, February 7-12, 1988.

Dagalakis, N.G., Albus, J.S., Wang, B.L., Unger, J., Lee, J.D., "Stiffness Study of a Parallel Link Robot Crane for Shipbuilding Applications,"Proceedings of the 7th International Conference for Offshore Mechanical and Arctic Engineering, Houston, TX, February 7-12, 1988.

Herman, M., Albus, J.S., "Real-Time Hierarchical Planning for Multiple Mobile Robots,"Proceedings of the DARPA Knowledge-Based Planning Workshop, Austin, TX, December 8-10, 1987.

Fiala, J.C., Lumia, R., Albus, J.S., "Servo Level Algorithms for the NASREM Telerobot Control System Architecture,"SPIE Volume 851, Proceedings of SPIE 1987, Cambridge Symposium of Advances Intelligent Robotic Systems, Cambridge, MA, November 2-4, 1987.

Albus, J.S., "Control System Architecture for Intelligent Machine Systems,"Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Conference, Alexandria, VA, October 20-23, 1987.

Lumia, R., Albus, J.S., "Architecture to Support Teleoperation and Autonomy,"Proceedings of the 1987 IEEE Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Alexandria, VA, October 20-23, 1987.

Albus, J.S.; Blidberg, D.R. "Control System Architecture for Multiple Autonomous Undersea Vehicles (MAUV), Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Unmanned, Untethered Submersible Technology, Merrimack, NH, June 22-24, 1987.

Albus, J.S., Lumia, R., McCain, H.G., "Software Architecture for Manufacturing and Space Robotics", Second AIAA/NASA/USAF Symposium on Automation, Robotics and Advanced Computing for the National Space Program, Arlington, Va, March 9-11, 1987.

Albus, J.S., Lumia, R., McCain, H.G., "A Control System Architecture for the Space Station Flight Telerobot Servicer", Space Telerobotics Workshop, January 20-21, 1987, Pasadena, CA.

Albus, J.S., Lumia, R., McCain, H.G., "Hierarchical Control of intelligent Machines Applied to Space Station Telerobots", 1987 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, Philadelphia, PA, January 18-20, 1987.

Albus, J.S., "A Trip Report: Japanese Progress in Robotics for Construction," ROBOTICS MAGAZINE, Spring, 1986.

Albus, James S. "Robotics -- Past, Present, and Future." Proceedings, AGARD/NATO Mission on Robotics and Artificial Intelligence, Sept. 26-Oct. 4, l985.

Albus, James S., McLean, C.R., Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L. "Hierarchical Control For Robots And Teleoperators." Proceedings, IEEE Workshop On Intelligent Control, Albany, NY, August l985.

Albus, J.S., "Research Issues in Robotics,"Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering Conference (SAMPE), Albuquerque, NM, October 9, 1984.

Albus, J.S., "Robotics,"Proceedings of NATO ASI Series, Vol. F11, Robotics and AI, Edited by M. Brady, et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, September 1984.

Albus, James S., Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L., Kent, Ernest, et al. "A Control System For An Automated Manufacturing Research Facility." Proceedings, Robots 8 Exposition & Conference, Detroit, MI, June l984.

Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L., Albus, J.S., Haynes, L.S., "RCS: The NBS Real-Time Control System,"Proceedings of the Robots 8 Conference and Exposition, Volume 2 - Future Considerations, Detroit, MI, June 4-7, 1984.

Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L., Albus, J.S., Haynes, L.S., "Language Independent Superstructure for Implementing Real-Time Control Systems,"Proceedings of the International Workshop on High-Level Computer Architecture, Los Angeles, CA, May 21-25, 1984.

Albus, James, "A Structure for Generation and Control of Intelligent Behavior." Proceedings, l983 Int'l Conf. on Computer Design, " Rye, NY, October l983.

Albus, J.S., "Socio-Economic Implications of Robotics," The l983 World Congress on the Human Aspects of Automation, Ann Arbor, MI. Aug. l0, l983.

Albus, James S., "Survey of Robotics," NATO Advanced Study Institute on Robotics & Artificial Intelligence, Ciocco Int'l Center, Pascoli, Italy. July 3l, l983.

Albus, James S., Barbera, Anthony J., Bloom, Howard, Fitzgerald, M.L., Kent, Ernest, McLean, Charles, "Hierarchical Control For Robots In an Automated Factory." Presented at the l3th International Symposium on Industrial Robots/Robots 7, Chicago, Ill., Apr. l9, l983.

Albus, James S., "Robots in the Workplace," The Futurist Magazine, Feb., l983.

Albus, J.S., McLean, C.R., Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L., "An Architecture For Real-Time Sensory- Interactive Control of Robots In A Manufacturing Facility." 4th International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, Oct. l982.

Albus, James S., "Industrial Robots and Productivity Improvement", commissioned for Exploratory Workshop on the Social Impacts of Robotics: Summary and Issues, Congress of the United States, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, D.C. 20510. Published l982.

Albus, James S., "The Federal Role in Robotics," Enterprise Magazine, Aug., l982.

Albus, James, S., Barbera, Anthony J, and M.L. Fitzgerald, "Programming A Hierarchical Robot Control System," Proceedings, l2th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Paris, France, June l982.

Albus, James, "Research Topics in Industrial Robotics," Proceedings, l2th International Symposium on Industrial Robots, Paris, France, June l982.

Albus, J., Kent, E., Nashman, M., Mansbach, P., Palombo, L., Shneier, "Six-Dimensional Vision System." Proceedings, SPIE, Vol. 336, Robot Vision, May, l982.

Shneier, M., Nagalia, S., Albus, J.S. Haar, R., "Visual Feedback for Robot Control,"Proceedings of the International Workshop on Industrial Applications of Machine Vision, Research Triangle, NC, May 3-5, 1982.

Barbera, Anthony J., Fitzgerald, M.L., Albus, J.S., "Concepts For A Real-Time Sensory-Interactive Control System Architecture." Proceedings, l4th Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, Apr. l982.

Barbera, A.J., Fitzgerald, M.L., Albus, J.S., "Concepts for a Real-Time Sensory-Interactive Control System Architecture,"Proceedings of the Fourteenth Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, Blacksburg, VA, April 15-16, 1982.

Smith, B.M., Albus, J.S., Barbera, A.J., "A Glossary of Terms for Robotics,"NBSIR 81-2340, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, October 1981.

Albus, James S., "Sensory Interactive Robots," Annals of the Int'l Institute for Production Engineering Research, Sept. 198l.

Albus, James S., Barbera, Anthony J., and Nagel, Roger N., "Theory and Practice of Hierarchical Control", Proceedings, 23rd IEEE Computer Society International Conference, Sept., 1981.

Albus, James S., "Industrial Robots and Productivity Improvement," Proceedings, 6th Annual Partners Productivity Seminar, Utah State University, Apr., 1981.

Albus, James S., Haar, Robert, Nashman,Marilyn, Shneier, Michael, and Nagalia, S., "Real-Time Three- Dimensional Vision for Parts Acquisition." Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Proceedings, Apr., 1981.

Wheatley, Thomas E., Albus, James S. and Nagel, Roger N., NBS/Air Force ICAM Workshop on Robot Interfaces, Proceedings, June, 1980.

Albus, James S., Barbera, Anthony, Fitzgerald, Mary L., Nagel, Roger N., VanderBrug, Gordon J., and Wheatley, Thomas E., "A Measurement and Control Model for Adaptive Robots," 10th Int'l Symposium on Industrial Robots, Milan, Italy, Mar., 1980.

Albus, James, S., Vanderbrug, Gordon J., Barbera, Anthony J., Fitzgerald, M. L., and Wheatley, Thomas E., NBS/RIA Robotics Research Proceedings, Nov., 1979.

Albus, James S., Nagel, Roger N., VanderBrug, Gordon J., Lowenfeld, Ellen, "Experiments in Part Acquisition Using Robot Vision," NBSIR, Oct.-Nov., l979.

Albus, James S., "ROBOT": An Entry in Encyclopedia Americana," Encyclopedia American, 1979.

VanderBrug, Gordon J., Albus, James S., and Barbera, Anthony J., "Sensory Interactive Control Systems for Advanced Manufacturing," Proceedings, IFAC 2nd Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing Technology, Stuttgart, Germany, Oct., 1979.

Albus, J.S., "A Model of the Brain for Robot Control Part 2: A Neurological Model,"Byte Magazine, pgs. 54-95, July 1979.

Albus, J.S., "A Model of the Brain for Robot Control Part 1: Defining Notation,"Byte Magazine, pgs. 10- 32, June 1979.

Barbera, Anthony J., Albus, James S., and Fitzgerald, Mary L., "Hierarchical Control of Robots Using Microcomputers," Proceedings, 9th Int'l Symposium on Industrial Robots, Wash., DC, Mar., 1979.

VanderBrug, G.J., Albus, J.S., and Barkmeyer, E., "A Vision System for Real Time Control of Robots," Proceedings, 9th Int'l Symposium on Industrial Robots, Wash., DC, Mar., 1979.

Albus, James S., "Final Report-Proximity-Vision System for Protoflight Manipulator Arm," NBSIR, Dec., 1979.

Albus, J.S., "Hierarchical Interaction Between Behavior Generation and Pattern Recognition,"Proceedings of the Automatic Image Pattern Recognition Symposium, May 1977.

Albus, James S., and Evans, John M., Jr., "Robot Systems," Scientific American, Feb., 1976.

Evans, J.M., Albus, J.S., "Guidelines for the Design and Procurement of a Low Cost Mobile Robot,"NBSIR 76-995, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, MD, December 1975.

Albus, James S., Evans, John M., Jr., "A Hierarchical Structure for Robot Control," 5th Int'l Symposium on Industrial Robots, IIT Research Institute, Chicago, Sept., 1975.

Albus, James S., "Automation and the Sleeping Nation," Computer Decisions, p. 28-34, Aug., 1975.

Albus, James S. "Hierarchical Structures in Automation," Human Factors Society Symposium on Advanced Technologies in Systems Operation and Control, May, l975.

Albus, James S., "Economics of the Robot Revolution," Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact, P.70-8l, Apr., 1975.

Albus, James S., Evans, John M., Jr., "Robots - Now and in the Future," Dimensions, Technical News Bulletin of the National Bureau of Standards, Nov., l974.

Albus, James S., "The Control of a Manipulator by a Computer Model of the Cerebellum," Proceedings of the First National Conference on Remotely Manned Systems, (Ewald Heer, Editor) Calif. Institute of Technology, p. 423-430, l973.

Albus, James S., "A Robot Conditioned Reflex System Modeled After the Cerebellum, " AFIPS FJCC Conference Proceedings, 4l(2) l095- ll04, l972.

Albus, James S., "Robots, Jobs, and Rush Hour Traffic, " IEEE Int'l Convention Record, New York, l972.

Albus, James S.," Theoretical and Experimental Aspects of a Cerebellar Model," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Maryland, l972.

Albus, James, S., "The Cerebellum: A Substrate for List Processing in the Brain,", Cybernetics, Artificial Intelligence, and Ecology.( H.W. Robinson and D.E. Knight, eds.) Spartan Books, New York, l972.

Albus, James S., Muckel, G. A., and Pyle, E. J., "Attitude Determination of a Spin Stabilized Spacecraft," NASA X63l-65-l3, l965.

Albus, James S., Depew, R. D., Gaffney, J. E., and Richard, H. J., "Lunar AIMP Photographic Data Processing System," IEEE Transaction on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, AES-2, #6, l966.

Albus, James S., Schaefer, D. H., "Satellite Attitude Determination: Digital Sensing and On-Board Processing," IEEE Transactions on Space Electronics and Telemetry, SST-9, #3, 1963, (also published as NASA X-63l-63-133).

Albus, James S., "Digital Solar Aspect Sensors," Astronautics, p.30-3l, l963.

Albus, James S., "A Digital Solar Aspect Sensor," NASA TN D-l062, l961.

Significant Presentations

"4-D/RCS: A Reference Model Architecture for Demo III", Industry Day, Tank Automotive Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan, February, 1977

"An Architectural Framework for Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles", DARPA, January, 1997

"Systems Architecture for Next Generation Unmanned Vehicles", Next Generation Unmanned Vehicles Workshop, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen, Md., November 19, l996
also presented to Joint Program Office for Unmanned Ground Vehicles, Huntsville, Alabama, January 1997 also presented to DOD Weapons Systems Technical Architecture Working Group, MITRE, McLean, VA, January 1997

"RCS (Real-time Control Systems) System Architecture for Intelligent Systems", AIRP, Washington, D.C., October 17, 1996.

"RCS: A Reference Model for Open System Architecture Standards", National TV, University of Maryland, College Park, Md, August 6, 1996.

"Importance of Intelligent Control,"NSF/NIST/EPRI Workshop: New Directions in Intelligent Systems, Rockville, MD, June 10-12, 1996.

"Unmanned Tactical Aircraft - The Critical Technologies", DARPA, Arlington, VA, March 1996.

"Construction Robotics", Automated Bridge Construction Workshop, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, February 13, 1996.

"Applications of Robotics to Brain Theory", 1987 AAAS Annual Meeting, Chicago, Il., February 14, 1987.

"CIM", NSF Workshop on Multisensor Integration In Manufacturing Automation, Snowbird, UT, February 5-7, 1987.

"Robotics" State of the Art and Future Potential", Automation and Robotics Workshop, Space Station User's Working Group, New Carrollton, MD, November 14, 1987.

"Long Range Developments in A&R", Automation and Robotics in the Future German Space Program Workshop, Koeln-Porz, Germany, February 18-19, 1986.

DCSPE Monthly Meeting, RI/SME, "ROBOTICS", Gaithersburg Marriott, Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 4, 1986.

Workshop on Systems Integration Tools in Manufacturing, "Sensors and Controls", University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, November 6-7, 1985.

Japanese Technology Committee Mechatronics Forum, Robots 9, Detroit, MI, June 2, l985. Department of Defense Forum, Robots 9, Detroit, MI, June 3, l985.

American Nuclear Society Executive Conference, Remote Operation and Robotics in the Nuclear Industry. "Hierarchical Control of Robots and Teleoperators." Pine Mountain, GA, Apr. 22, l985.

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. "Robot Control Systems." Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, Apr. 2, l985

To Serve Man, "Brains, Behavior and Robotics," SIGART, New York, Dec. 5, l984.

Expert Systems, Technology Assessment, l984 Federal Computer Conference, Washington, DC, Sept. 20, l984.

NASA Langley Robotics/AI Program Review. Hampton, VA, Aug. l, l984.

Congressional Testimony to Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology Hearings on Federal Organization for Technological Innovation, Rayborn House Office Building, Washington, DC, June l3, l984.

"Automated Manufacturing Research at the National Bureau of Standards." Whitney Symposium V on Science and Technology Schenectady, NY, June 12, l984.

Department of Commerce Panel on Japanese Technology Evaluation Committee-Mechatronics, l984-l985.

Roundtable on Robotics Research, Robotics Today Magazine, Detroit, MI, June 5, l984.

"Industrial Intelligent Robots," American Assoc. for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting, New York, May 24, l984.

"Research Topics in Robotics." l984 Conference on Intelligent Systems & Machines, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, April 24, l984.

"Overview of Robotics." Lecture series on Robotics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, April l3, l984.

"Hierarchical Control for Robots in an Automated Factory." Automated Manufacturing l984, Conf. & Exhibition, Greenville, SC, March l8, l984.

"Robotics in the Year 2000." Robot Institute of America Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, March, 1, l984.

"Brains, Behavior and Robotics." IBM, Lexington, KY, February 6, l984.

"Future Socio-Economic Implications of Robotics." Corning Glass Co. Symposium, Granville, Ohio, January ll, l984.

"Socioeconomic Implications of Intelligent Robots." Robotics and Artificial Intelligence Conference, Washington, DC, December 2, l983.

"A Structure for Generation and Control of Intelligent Behavior." IEEE Int'l Conf. on Computer Design: VLSI in Computers, Rye, NY, October 3l, l983.

"An Overview of Sensory Interactive Control Systems." Combat Robots Working Group at the 51st Military Operations Research Symposium, Wright-Patterson AF Base, Dayton, Ohio, September 27, l983.

"Automated Manufacturing Research Facility at NBS " IBM Microprocessor and Minicomputer Meeting, Boca Raton, Florida, September 20, l983.

"Socio-Economic Implications of Robotics." l983 World Congress on the Human Aspects of Automation, Ann Arbor, MI, August l0, l983.

"Robotics." l983 International Computers in Engineering Conf. and Exhibit, Chicago, Ill, August 8, l983.

"A Hierarchical Architecture for Intelligent Measurement, Analysis, and Control." Process Modeling and Control Workshop, La Jolla, CA, July 22, l983.

"Robotics, Implications for the Future," Center for Automation Research Inaugural, University of Maryland, May 2, l983.

"Social Impact of Robotics," 2001:Science, Technology & The University, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, April l5, l983.

"Future Implications of Robotics," Visions of the Future Seminar, Smithsonian Resident Associate Program. The Smithsonian Institution, March 5, l983.

"Robotics," Western Electric, National Engineer's Week 83. Kansas City, MO, February 23, l983.

Philosophical Society of Washington, "Philosophical Implications of Robotics," December l7, l982.

"Industrial Application of Robotics," IEEE Satellite TV Workshop, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, December 7, l982.

"Sensory Interactive Robots," Univ. of Maryland Colloquium, College Park, Md., Nov. 22, l982, and the 31st General Assembly of the International Institution for Production Engineering Research, Toronto, Canada, September 1, 1981.

"Robotics," Robot Institute of America Research Workshop, Gaithersburg, Md, Nov. 8, l982.

National Organizing Committee, 4th IFAC Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, October, l982, and Speaker,"A Generic Control Structure for Sensor-Interactive Robots," 4th IFAC Symposium, Gaithersburg, MD, October 28, l982.

"Technological Frontiers in Robotics," Robotics Interface Standards Workshop, Marriott Hotel, Gaithersburg, MD, Sept. 28, l982.

"Robotics," American Defense Preparedness Assoc., Ft. Knox, KY, Sept. 23, l982.

"Robotics in Manufacturing," ASME l982 Design Engineering Technical Conference, Arlington, VA, Sept. l3, l982.

"Robotics and the Automatic Factory," ASME l982 Design Engineering Technical Conference, Arlington, VA, Sept. l4, l982.

"Robotics and Brain Models," UCLA, Crump Institute, Los Angeles, CA, August 25, l982. Industrial Robotics, University of Maryland, August, l982.

"Sensor Robotics at the Nat'l Bur. of Standards," SPIE Meeting, San Diego, CA, August, l982.

"Future Implications of Robotics and the Automatic Factory," Symposium on Robotics, Assoc. for Science & Technology & Innovation, American University, May, l982.

"Robot Vision," Optical Society of America, Ann Arbor, MI, April, l982.

"Robotics," George Washington Univ., Spring Course, Wash., DC, Jan.-Apr., l982.

"Robotics," Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, March, l982.

"Future Potential of Robotics," Engineers & Architects Day, Wash., DC, Feb., l982.

Office of Technology Assessment, US Congress. "Industrial Robot Technology & Productivity Improvement," Wash., DC, July, l982.

"State-of-Art in Robotics," IBM Engineering Seminar, San Jose, CA, Dec., l98l.

"Hierarchical Control Systems in Robots," IEEE Society, Philadelphia, PA, Nov., l98l.

"Robotics," Univ. of Ala. Graduate School of Business, Tuscaloosa, Ala., Oct., l98l.

"Computer Vision & Robotics," Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, Sept., l98l.

"Automation Technology," CAM-I, Arlington, TX, Sept., l98l.

"Sensory Interactive Robots," 3lst Gen. Assembly, Int'l Institution for Production Engineering Research (CIRP), Toronto, Canada, August, l98l.

"Industrial Robotics," University of Maryland, College Park, MD, August, l981.

Seminar on Sensory Interactive Robots, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL, June 29, 1981.

Course in Automation and Robotics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, April 28, 1981.

A Brief Survey Current Robots and Control Systems, SME Meeting, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, April 10, l98l.

Seminar on State-of-Art in Robotics, George Washington University, Washington, DC, March 31, 1981.

Survey of Current Robots, Control and Sensor Systems, Annual Convention, Int'l Assoc. of Machinists and Aerospace Workers, Las Vegas, NV, March 3, 1981.

MIT Panel on Space Manufacturing, Jan., 1980

Colloquium at Digital Equipment Seminar on Robotics, Maynard, MA Jan., 1980.

Seminar on Robotics at NBS, Jan., 1980.

NASA Automation Cross Cut Program Review, Washington, DC, Feb., 1980

Washington Computer Fair, Washington, DC Computer Club, Feb., 1980.

Brains, Behavior and Robotics, New York Academy of Science Colloquium on Robotics, New York, Feb., 1980.

Seminar on Robotics, George Washington University, Wash., DC, Apr.,1980.

Seminar on Robotics, World Future Society Seminar, Wash., DC, Apr., 1980.

American Society for Cybernetics Workshop on Robotics, Apr., 1980.

2nd NASA Workshop on Space Manufacturing, Wash., DC, May, 1980.

Seminar on Robotics, Rutgers University, C. S., New Brunswick, NJ, Apr., 1979.

Trenton Computer Fair, "Brains and Robotics," Trenton Computer Club, Trenton, NJ, Apr. 1979.

Advanced Industrial Robots, National Computer Conference, AFIPS, NY, June, 1979.

BYTE Magazine Robot Conference, Aug., 1979.

Symposium for Innovation in Measurement Science, Hobart & Williams Smith College, Instrument Soc. of America, Geneva, NY, Aug., 1979.

Graduate Seminar on Robotics, Computer Science Colloquium, Carnegie-Mellon, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 1979.

Organizer, NBS-RIA (Robot Institute of America) Workshop on Robotics Research, Nov., 1979.

Computer Science Seminar on Robotics, Computer and Information Science Dept, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Dec., 1979.

Computer Science Colloquium, "Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer and the Mechanisms of Intelligent Behavior, Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, William and Mary College, Williamsburg, VA, Oct. 1978.

"Economics of the Robot Revolution," U.S. State Department Senior Seminar in Foreign Policy, Sept., l975 and May l975.

Albus, James S., "The Brain as a Model for LSI," ART/SRT Presentation, Goddard Space Flight Center, l969, (Superior Achievement Award Given for presentation).

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